Linguistics in Amsterdam 4-2 (september 2011)Magaly Grández Ávila: Language transparency in Functional Discourse Grammar: The case of Quechua1
3 Accounting for degrees of transparency between levels
3.1 At the Interpersonal-Representational levels

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3.1.1 No cross-reference

According to Hengeveld and Mackenzie (2008:350), cross-reference occurs when person marking on the verb is capable of referring by itself. Cross-referencing pronominal argument affixes can therefore be treated as the bound expression of Referential Subacts (Interpersonal Level). The lack of transparency, i.e. the absence of an ideally one-to-one mapping from level to level, arises due to the possibility for cross-referential markers to be expanded further by a lexically realized argument, leading to the occurrence of two Referential Subacts at the Interpersonal Level referring to a single argument at the Representational Level. Quechua obligatorily cross-references the arguments that are assigned the semantic function of Actor or the syntactic function of Subject. It may also cross-reference the Undergoer argument. As in (4), arguments may be further expanded by means of proper names, which are introduced at the Interpersonal Level:

(Weber, 1989: 10)

As pointed out by Hengeveld and Mackenzie (2008:350), the overt expression of arguments by means of lexical/pragmatic units apart from cross-referential markers on the verb should be considered as cases of apposition. Within the context of FDG, apposition is a phenomenon that violates the transparent one-to-one relation between pragmatic and semantic units. Thus, Quechua can be said to lack of transparency in this respect.